Causes of Male Infertility

For approximately 1/3 of couples that have a fertility problem, the complication stems from male factor infertility. The good news is that NCMFC Urologist Dr. Generao can help!

Common Causes of Male Factor Infertility

Potential causes of male infertility include environmental, lifestyle, endocrine (hormonal), and physical factors that may influence the production, quality, or transfer of sperm. Once these factors are identified, they are usually relatively easy to address and correct.

An environmental factor generally refers to exposure to harmful chemicals in the workplace. Lifestyle issues may include such things as poor diet, regular heavy consumption of alcohol (more than one or two drinks in a 24 hour period), use of tobacco or illicit drugs, or frequent use of hot tubs or saunas. All of these are known to negatively affect the production and quality of sperm. If one or a combination of these factors is found to be the reason for infertility, we can reverse the problem by helping you to take the steps to remove the factor that is causing it.

Although not as common, a hormonal imbalance is another potential cause of male infertility that we consider. Because hormones control not only the production and maturation of sperm, but also the sex drive, hormone levels that are too high or too low can make it very difficult to conceive. In some cases, hormones may be regulated through medication. In others, if the source of the hormonal imbalance can be identified and corrected, the problem will disappear.

Physical problems can also cause male infertility. Physical complications include blockages in the seminal tract, varicocele (an enlargement of certain veins which increases heat and reduces sperm production), and any genetic or medical condition that prevents sperm from being produced or delivered normally. Although physical problems are typically more complex and varied than other causes of male infertility, medical technology has made it possible to treat or overcome almost all of physical impediments through either medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies.

Identifying Male Infertility

An assessment of male infertility generally involves a complete physical exam with a review of the patient’s full medical history, a semen analysis, and sometimes hormonal evaluations. In order to get an accurate assessment, the semen analysis or hormonal tests may need to be done as many as three or more times, over a period of two or three weeks. This is because normal fluctuations can occur that may skew results and lead to an inaccurate diagnosis if only one sample is taken.

During the physical examination, the genitals will be examined for signs of swelling, tenderness, or abnormalities. The doctor will also assess the patient’s overall health and discuss personal and family medical history. It is extremely important to be honest and thorough during this discussion in order to be sure that any and all potential causes of infertility are identified.

The semen analysis will address the volume of ejaculate, concentration (number) of sperm cells, and the level of normal sperm motility (movement) and morphology (shape). The information gathered during this analysis will supply important clues as to the degree and source of male infertility problems.

Regardless of the causes of infertility problems in men, our Sacramento practice has the technology to overcome almost any degree of sperm-based obstacle to pregnancy. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and ICSI offer the possibility of fatherhood to men who would once have had no chance of being able to have children.

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